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Hepatic cecum: a key integrator of immunity in amphioxus
Baozhen Qu, Shicui Zhang, Zengyu Ma, Zhan Gao
2021, 3(3): 279-292. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00080-w
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Abstract:
The vertebrate liver is regarded as an organ essential to the regulation of immunity and inflammation as well as being central to the metabolism of nutrients. Here, we discuss the functions that the hepatic cecum of amphioxus plays in the regulation of immunity and inflammation, and the molecular basis of this. It is apparent that the hepatic cecum performs important roles in the immunity of amphioxus including immune surveillance, clearance of pathogens and acute phase response. Therefore, the hepatic cecum, like the vertebrate liver, is an organ functioning as a key integrator of immunity in amphioxus.
The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium infects marine crustaceans
Caiwen Li, Meng Li, Qian Huang
2021, 3(3): 313-325. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00061-z
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Abstract:
Hematodinium is a type of parasitic dinoflagellate that infects marine crustaceans globally. The parasite lives mainly in the hemolymph or hemocoels of affected hosts, and results in mortalities due to malfunction or loss of functions of major organs. In recent years, the parasite had developed into an emerging epidemic pathogen not only affecting wild populations of economically valuable marine crustaceans in western countries but also the sustainable yield of aquaculture of major crabs in China. The epidemics of the parasitic diseases expanded recently in the coastal waters of China, and caused frequent outbreaks in aquaculture of major crab species, especially Portunus trituberculatus and Scylla paramamosain. In addition, the pathogen infected two species of co-cultured shrimps and multiple cohabitating wild crabs, implying it is a significant threat to the sustainable culture of commercially valuable marine crustaceans. In particular, the polyculture system that is widely used along the coast of China may facilitate the spread and transmission of the pathogen. Thus, to provide a better understanding of the biological and ecological characteristics of the parasitic dinoflagellate and highlight important directions for future research, we have reviewed the current knowledge on the taxonomy, life cycle, pathogenesis, transmission and epidemiology of Hematodinium spp. Moreover, ecological countermeasures have been proposed for the prevention and control of the emerging infectious disease.
The application of genome editing technology in fish
Jianguo Lu, Wenyu Fang, Junrou Huang, Shizhu Li
2021, 3(3): 326-346. doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00091-1
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Abstract:
The advent and development of genome editing technology has opened up the possibility of directly targeting and modifying genomic sequences in the field of life sciences with rapid developments occurring in the last decade. As a powerful tool to decipher genome data at the molecular biology level, genome editing technology has made important contributions to elucidating many biological problems. Currently, the three most widely used genome editing technologies include: zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). Researchers are still striving to create simpler, more efficient, and accurate techniques, such as engineered base editors and new CRISPR/Cas systems, to improve editing efficiency and reduce off-target rate, as well as a near-PAMless SpCas9 variants to expand the scope of genome editing. As one of the important animal protein sources, fish has significant economic value in aquaculture. In addition, fish is indispensable for research as it serves as the evolutionary link between invertebrates and higher vertebrates. Consequently, genome editing technologies were applied extensively in various fish species for basic functional studies as well as applied research in aquaculture. In this review, we focus on the application of genome editing technologies in fish species detailing growth, gender, and pigmentation traits. In addition, we have focused on the construction of a zebrafish (Danio rerio) disease model and high-throughput screening of functional genes. Finally, we provide some of the future perspectives of this technology.
Co-culture: stimulate the metabolic potential and explore the molecular diversity of natural products from microorganisms
Xiao-Yue Peng, Jin-Tao Wu, Chang-Lun Shao, Zhi-Yong Li, Min Chen, Chang-Yun Wang
2021, 3(3): 363-374. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00077-5
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Abstract:
Microbial secondary metabolites have long been considered as potential sources of lead compounds for medicinal use due to their rich chemical diversity and extensive biological activities. However, many biosynthetic gene clusters remain silent under traditional laboratory culture conditions, resulting in repeated isolation of a large number of known compounds. The co-culture strategy simulates the complex ecological environment of microbial life by using an ecology-driven method to activate silent gene clusters of microorganisms and tap their metabolic potential to obtain novel bioactive secondary metabolites. In this review, representative studies from 2017 to 2020 on the discovery of novel bioactive natural products from co-cultured microorganisms are summarized. A series of natural products with diverse and novel structures have been discovered successfully by co-culture strategies, including fungus-fungus, fungus-bacterium, and bacterium-bacterium co-culture approaches. These novel compounds exhibited various bioactivities including extensive antimicrobial activities and potential cytotoxic activities, especially when it came to disparate marine-derived species and cross-species of marine strains and terrestrial strains. It could be concluded that co-culture can be an effective strategy to tap the metabolic potential of microorganisms, particularly for marine-derived species, thus providing diverse molecules for the discovery of lead compounds and drug candidates.
Research Paper
High chromosomal evolutionary dynamics in sleeper gobies (Eleotridae) and notes on disruptive biological factors in Gobiiformes karyotypes (Osteichthyes, Teleostei)
Simião Alefe Soares da Silva, Paulo Augusto de Lima-Filho, Clóvis Coutinho da Motta-Neto, Gideão Wagner Werneck Félix da Costa, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi, Luiz Antônio Carlos Bertollo, Wagner Franco Molina
2021, 3(3): 293-302. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00084-6
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Abstract:
The order Gobiiformes is made up of more than 2200 species, representing one of the most diverse groups among teleost fishes. The biological causes for the tachytelic karyotype evolution of the gobies have not yet been fully studied. Here we expanded cytogenetic data for the Eleotridae family, analyzing the neotropical species Dormitator maculatus, Eleotris pisonis, Erotelis smaragdus, and Guavina guavina. In addition, a meta-analytical approach was followed for elucidating the karyotype diversification versus biological aspects (habitat and egg type) of the Gobiiformes. The species E. smaragdus and E. pisonis present 2n = 46 acrocentric chromosomes (NF = 46), D. maculatus 2n = 46 (36sm + 4st + 6a; NF = 86), and G. guavina, the most divergent karyotype, with 2n = 52 acrocentric chromosomes (NF = 52). Besides numeric and structural diversification in the karyotypes, the mapping of rDNAs and microsatellites also showed noticeable numerical and positional variation, supporting the high chromosomal evolutionary dynamism of these species. In Gobiiformes, karyotype patterns which are more divergent from the basal karyotype (2n = 46a) are associated with characteristics less effective to dispersion, such as the benthic habit. These adaptive characteristics, connected with the organization of the repetitive DNA content in the chromosomes, likely play a synergistic role in the remarkable karyotype diversification of this group.
A new hypotrich ciliate, Oxytricha xianica sp.nov., with notes on the morphology and phylogeny of a Chinese population of Oxytricha auripunctata Blatterer & Foissner, 1988(Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae)
Jingyi Wang, Tengteng Zhang, Fengchao Li, Alan Warren, Yanbo Li, Chen Shao
2021, 3(3): 303-312. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00089-1
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Abstract:
The morphology and infraciliature of the new hypotrichous ciliate, Oxytricha xianica sp.nov., and a Chinese population of Oxytricha auripunctata Blatterer & Foissner, 1988, are investigated using live observation and protargol staining.Oxytricha xianica sp.nov.is defined by the body size 85-130 μm × 30-50 μm in vivo, the typical oxytrichid 18 frontoventral-transverse cirri, cortical granules absent, undulating membranes reduced or absent, three caudal cirri, dorsal kineties in Oxytricha pattern, and two ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules.The Chinese population of O.auripunctata differs slightly from other populations in the arrangement and color of cortical granules and position of anterior end of dorsal kinety 4.Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU-rDNA sequences support the assertion that O.auripunctata belongs to Oxytricha and Oxytrichidae.
Reproductive biology of female sawcheek scorpionfish, Brachypterois serrulata (Richardson, 1846) (Teleostei; Scorpaenidae) from Visakhapatnam Coast, India
Muddula Krishna Naranji, Govinda Rao Velamala, Kandula Sujatha
2021, 3(3): 347-354. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00083-7
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Abstract:
We examined the reproductive biology of sawcheek scorpionfish, Brachypterois serrulata, collected from Visakhapatnam fish landing center (fishing area covered 16.98°-20.20°N, 82.19°-86.53°E). We studied the annual reproductive cycle, fecundity, size at first maturity, mode of spawning with periodical changes and histological preparations. Size distribution and size at sexual maturity were calculated as 108 mm TL for females. The mean gonado somatic index values of female increased rapidly from January to December, and reached its peak during January and February. The fecundity of the fish species is determined by the size and weight of the individuals. The fecundity varied from 1896 to 20, 488, with an average of 5721.90 ova.
In vivo immunostimulatory effect of the amoebocyte lysate and plasma of Asian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas in a piscine model
Sukanta Kumar Nayak, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Priyabrat Swain
2021, 3(3): 355-362. doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00090-2
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Abstract:
Antimicrobial proteins/peptides are becoming a new generation of immunostimulants for prevention and disease control in human and animals, including aquatic animals. As the haemolymph of horseshoe crabs (Tachypleus) contains broad ranges of bioactive compounds, we have explored the in vivo immunostimulating potential of amoebocyte lysate and plasma using a fish model. Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, yearlings were injected intraperitoneally with two doses of lysate and plasma at 50 and 100 μg protein per fish. No abnormalities and/or mortalities were recorded in any group. L. rohita injected with 50 μg lysate and 100 μg plasma protein showed significant enhancement (P < 0.01) of various haematological and immunological parameters. There was a significant rise in the total protein and globulin content, myeloperoxidase and respiratory burst activity following injection with 50 μg lysate and 100 μg plasma protein. The agglutinating and haemagglutinating activities were increased albeit not significantly (P > 0.01) in any groups. On the contrary, a significantly high hemolysin titre was recorded in fish that received 100 μg plasma protein. Following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, both lysate and plasma protein(s) cross protected the fish after 30 days. The highest survival (50%) was recorded in group injected with 50 μg lysate protein, followed by 45% in both 100 μg lysate and plasma protein injected groups.
Marine alkaloids as the chemical marker for the prey–predator relationship of the sponge Xestospongia sp. and the nudibranch Jorunna funebris
Qihao Wu, Song-Wei Li, Nicole J. de Voogd, Hong Wang, Li-Gong Yao, Yue-Wei Guo, Xu-Wen Li
2021, 3(3): 375-381. doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00096-w
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Abstract:
The dietary relationship study between marine sponge Xestospongia sp. and its nudibranch predators Jorunna funebris based on the discovery of isoquinolinequinones has long been studied. In this study, chemical investigation of the sponge Xestospongia sp. and nudibranch J. funebris from the South China Sea yielded a new marine alkaloid neopetroside C (1), together with nine known alkaloids (210). The chemical structures of all the compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Neopetroside C (1) featured a riboside of nicotinic acid with a rare α-N glycosildic linkage and an acyl residue of (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid attached to C-5′. The plausible chemical ecology relationship between sponge Xestospongia sp. and its nudibranch predator J. funebris was proposed based on the biogenetic relationship of the common marine alkaloids. The observation of two structural fragments, (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoyloxy and trigonelline groups in both sponge and nudibranch, indicated that nudibranch might uptake chemicals from sponge and then modify and transform them into chemical weapons to defend against predators.
Visual detection of tropomyosin, a major shrimp allergenic protein using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-assisted colorimetric aptasensor
Tushar Ramesh Pavase, Hong Lin, Maqsood Ahmed Soomro, Hongwei Zheng, Xiaxia Li, Kexin Wang, Zhenxing Li
2021, 3(3): 382-394. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00085-5
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Abstract:
A gold nanoparticle-based label-free colorimetric assay was developed to detect the shrimp allergenic protein tropomyosin (TM), an important biomarker responsible for severe clinical reactivity to shellfish. In a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-tropomyosin-binding aptamer (TMBA) complex, the aptamer adsorbs onto the surface of AuNPs and dissociates in the presence of TM. In addition, AuNPs tend to aggregate in the presence of ionic salt, revealing a color change (i.e., wine-red to purple/blue) with a shift in the maximum absorption peak from 520 nm. In the presence of specific binding TM, the aptamer folds into a tertiary structure where it more efficiently stabilizes AuNPs toward the salt-induced aggregation with a hypsochromic shift in the absorption spectra compared to the stabilized AuNPs by aptamer alone. Based on the aggregation and sensitive spectral transformation principle, the AuNPs-based colorimetric aptasensor was successfully applied to detect TM with a range of 10-200 nmol/L and a low detection limit of 40 nmol/L in water samples. The reliability, selectivity, and sensitivity of the aptasensor was then tested with food samples spiked with TM. The observed detection limit was as low as 70 nmol/L in shrimp, 90 nmol/L in tofu, and 80 nmol/L in eggs, respectively. We anticipate the proposed AuNPs-based colorimetric aptasensor assay possesses a high potential for the easy and efficient visual colorimetric detection of TM.
Expanding our understanding of marine viral diversity through metagenomic analyses of bioflms
Wei Ding, Ruojun Wang, Zhicong Liang, Rui Zhang, Pei-Yuan Qian, Weipeng Zhang
2021, 3(3): 395-404. doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00078-4
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Abstract:
Recent metagenomics surveys have provided insights into the marine virosphere. However, these surveys have focused solely on viruses in seawater, neglecting those associated with biofilms. By analyzing 1.75 terabases of biofilm metagenomic data, 3974 viral sequences were identified from eight locations around the world. Over 90% of these viral sequences were not found in previously reported datasets. Comparisons between biofilm and seawater metagenomes identified viruses that are endemic to the biofilm niche. Analysis of viral sequences integrated within biofilm-derived microbial genomes revealed potential functional genes for trimeric autotransporter adhesin and polysaccharide metabolism, which may contribute to biofilm formation by the bacterial hosts. However, more than 70% of the genes could not be annotated. These findings show marine biofilms to be a reservoir of novel viruses and have enhanced our understanding of natural virus-bacteria ecosystems.