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Articles Corrected proof have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes/issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Review
Scientific and technological progress in the microbial exploration of the hadal zone
Shen Fan, Meng Wang, Wei Ding, Yong-Xin Li, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Weipeng Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00110-1
Abstract(1028) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
The hadal zone is the deepest point in the ocean with a depth that exceeds 6000 m. Exploration of the biological communities in hadal zone began in the 1950s (the first wave of hadal exploration) and substantial advances have been made since the turn of the twenty-first century (the second wave of hadal exploration), resulting in a focus on the hadal sphere as a research hotspot because of its unique physical and chemical conditions. A variety of prokaryotes are found in the hadal zone. The mechanisms used by these prokaryotes to manage the high hydrostatic pressures and acquire energy from the environment are of substantial interest. Moreover, the symbioses between microbes and hadal animals have barely been studied. In addition, equipment has been developed that can now mimic hadal environments in the laboratory and allow cultivation of microbes under simulated in situ pressure. This review provides a brief summary of recent progress in the mechanisms by which microbes adapt to high hydrostatic pressures, manage limited energy resources and coexist with animals in the hadal zone, as well as technical developments in the exploration of hadal microbial life.
Shifting chemical defence or novel weapons? A review of defence traits in Agarophyton vermiculophyllum and other invasive seaweeds
Gaoge Wang, Yifei Ren, Shasha Wang, Minglei Hou, Florian Weinberger
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00109-8
Abstract(520) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
Seaweed bioinvasions increasingly affect coastal environments around the world, which increases the need for predictive models and mitigation strategies. The biotic interactions between seaweed invaders and invaded communities are often considered a key determinant of invasion success and failure and we here revise the current evidence that the capacity of seaweed invaders to deter enemies in newly reached environments correlates with their invasion success. Particularly efficient chemical defences have been described for several of the more problematic seaweed invaders during the last decades. However, confirmed cases in which seaweed invaders confronted un-adapted enemies in newly gained environments with deterrents that were absent from these environments prior to the invasion (so-called "novel weapons") are scarce, although an increasing number of invasive and non-invasive seaweeds are screened for defence compounds. More evidence exists that seaweeds may adapt defence intensities to changing pressure by biological enemies in newly invaded habitats. However, most of this evidence of shifting defence was gathered with only one particular model seaweed, the Asia-endemic red alga Agarophyton vermiculophyllum, which is particularly accessible for direct comparisons of native and non-native populations in common garden experiments. A. vermiculophyllum interacts with consumers, epibionts and bacterial pathogens and in most of these interactions, non-native populations have rather gained than lost defensive capacity relative to native conspecifics. The increases in the few examined cases were due to an increased production of broad-spectrum deterrents and the relative scarcity of specialized deterrents perhaps reflects the circumstance that seaweed consumers and epibionts are overwhelmingly generalists.
Research Paper
Community structure and activity potentials of archaeal communities in hadal sediments of the Mariana and Mussau trenches
Zixuan Wang, Li Wang, Rulong Liu, Zhenzhen Li, JiaXin Wu, Xing Wei, Wenxia Wei, Jiasong Fang, Junwei Cao, Yuli Wei, Zhe Xie
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00105-y
Abstract(172) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
Hadal trenches are the least explored marine habitat on earth. Archaea has been shown to be the dominant group in trench sediments. However, the activity potentials and detailed diversity of these communities as well as their inter-trench variations are still not known. In this study, we combined datasets from two pairs of primers to investigate at high resolution the structure and activity potentials of the archaeal communities in vertically sectioned sediment cores taken from the deepest points of the Mariana (10, 853 m) and Mussau (7011 m) trenches. The compositions of the potentially active communities revealed, via 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and RNA (rRNA), significant differences between samples. Marine Group I (MGI), with nine identified subgroups, was the most dominant class in the active archaeal communities of the two trenches. Significantly different species composition and vertical variations were observed between the two trenches. Vertical transitions from aerobic MGI α to anaerobic MGI η and υ subgroups were observed in MST but not in MT sediments, which might be related to the faster microbial oxygen consumption in MST. These results provide a better understanding on archaeal activity and diversity in trench sediments.
Mechanism of interactions between a-conotoxin RegIIA and carbohydrates at the human a3ߴ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Meiling Zheng, Han-Shen Tae, Liang Xue, Tao Jiang, Rilei Yu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00108-9
Abstract(233) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
Conotoxins are marine peptide toxins from marine cone snails. The a-conotoxin RegIIA can selectively act on human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and is an important lead for drug development. The high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the α3β4 nAChR demonstrates several carbohydrates are located near the orthosteric binding sites, which may affect a-conotoxin binding. Oligosaccharide chains can modify the physical and chemical properties of proteins by changing the conformation, hydrophobicity, quality and size of the protein. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of oligosaccharide chains on the binding modes and activities of RegIIA and its derivatives at hα3β4 nAChRs. Through computational simulations, we designed and synthesized RegIIA mutants at position 14 to explore the importance of residue H14 to the activity of the peptide. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the oligosaccharide chains affect the binding of RegIIA at the hα3β4 nAChR through direct interactions with H14 and by affecting the C-loop conformation of the binding sites. Electrophysiology studies on H14 analogues suggest that in addition to forming direct interactions with the carbohydrates, the residue might play an important role in maintaining the conformation of the peptide. Overall, this study further clarifies the structureסctivity relationship of a-conotoxin RegIIA at the hα3β4 nAChR and, also provides important experimental and theoretical basis for the development of new peptide drugs.
Structure modification, antialgal, antiplasmodial, and toxic evaluations of a series of new marine-derived 14-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives
Wei-Feng Xu, Na-Na Wu, Yan-Wei Wu, Yue-Xuan Qi, Mei-Yan Wei, Laura M. Pineda, Michelle G. Ng, Carmenza Spadafora, Ji-Yong Zheng, Ling Lu, Chang-Yun Wang, Yu-Cheng Gu, Chang-Lun Shao
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00103-0
Abstract(308) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
Marine natural products play critical roles in the chemical defense of many marine organisms and are essential, reputable sources of successful drug leads. Sixty-seven 14-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives 3-27 and 30-71 of the natural product zeaenol (1) isolated from the marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus were semisynthesized by chlorination, acylation, esterification, and acetalization in one to three steps. The structures of these new derivatives were established by HRESIMS and NMR techniques. All the compounds (1-71) were evaluated for their antialgal and antiplasmodial activities. Among them, 14 compounds displayed antifouling activities against adhesion of the fouling diatoms. In particular, 9 and 34 exhibited strong and selective inhibitory effects against the diatoms Navicula laevissima and Navicula exigua (EC50 = 6.67 and 8.55 μmol/L), respectively, which were similar in efficacy to those of the positive control SeaNine 211 (EC50 = 2.90 and 9.74 μmol/L). More importantly, 38, 39, and 69-71 showed potent antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 3.54 to 9.72 μmol/L. Very interestingly, the five antiplasmodial derivatives displayed non-toxicity in the cytotoxicity assays and the zebrafish embryos model, thus, representing potential promising antiplasmodial drug agents. The preliminary structureסctivity relationships indicated that biphenyl substituent at C-2, acetonide at positions C-5' and C-6', and tri- or tetra-substituted of acyl groups increased the antiplasmodial activity. Therefore, combining evaluation of chemical ecology with pharmacological models will be implemented as a systematic strategy, not only for environmentally friendly antifoulants but also for structurally novel drugs.
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor D from kuruma shrimp exhibits antiviral activity
Hai-Shan Jiang, Li-Xia Lv, Jin-Xing Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00113-y
Abstract(241) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) exhibit a potent antimicrobial activity against a broad range of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and viruses. In previous reports, seven groups of ALFs (groups A–G) were identified in penaeid shrimp. Among them, group D showed negative net charges and weak antimicrobial activity. Whether this group has antiviral function is not clear. In this study, the ALF sequences of penaeid shrimp were analyzed, and eight groups of ALF family (groups A–H) were identified. The four ALFs including MjALF-C2, MjALF-D1, MjALF-D2, and MjALF-E2 from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus were expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli, and the antiviral activity was screened via injection of purified recombinant ALFs into shrimp following white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Results showed that the expression of Vp28 (WSSV envelope protein) decreased significantly in the MjALF-D2-injected shrimp only. Therefore, MjALF-D2 was chosen for further study. Expression pattern analysis showed that MjAlf-D2 was upregulated in shrimp challenged by WSSV. The WSSV replication was detected in RNA, genomic DNA, and protein levels using VP28 and Ie1 (immediate-early gene of WSSV) as indicators in MjALF-D2-injected shrimp following WSSV infection. Results showed that WSSV replication was significantly inhibited compared with that in the rTRX- or PBS-injected control groups. After knockdown of MjAlf-D2 in shrimp by RNA interference, the WSSV replication increased significantly in the shrimp. All these results suggested that MjALF-D2 has an antiviral function in shrimp immunity, and the recombinant ALF-D2 has a potential application for viral disease control in shrimp aquaculture.
Metagenomes of polyamine-transforming bacterioplankton along a nearshore–open ocean transect
Xinxin Lu, Kai Wang, Xiaozhen Mou
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00114-x
Abstract(255) HTML PDF Springerlink
Abstract:
Short-chained aliphatic polyamines (PAs) have recently been recognized as an important carbon, nitrogen, and/or energy source for marine bacterioplankton. To study the genes and taxa involved in the transformations of different PA compounds and their potential variations among marine systems, we collected surface bacterioplankton from nearshore, offshore, and open ocean stations in the Gulf of Mexico and examined their metagenomic responses to additions of single PA model compounds (putrescine, spermidine, or spermine). Genes affiliated with PA uptake and all three known PA degradation pathways, i.e., transamination, γ-glutamylation, and spermidine cleavage, were significantly enriched in most PA-treated metagenomes. In addition, identified PA-transforming taxa were mostly the alpha and gamma classes of Proteobacteria, with less important contributions from members of Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. These findings suggest that PA transformations are ubiquitous, have diverse pathways, and are carried out by a broad range of the bacterioplankton taxa in the Gulf of Mexico. Identified PA-transforming bacterial genes and taxa were different among nearshore, offshore, and open ocean sites, but were little different among individual compound-amended metagenomes at any specific site. These observations further indicate that PA-transforming taxa and genes are site-specific and with high similarities among PA compounds.