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Articles Corrected proof have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes/issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Review
Scientific and technological progress in the microbial exploration of the hadal zone
Shen Fan, Meng Wang, Wei Ding, Yong-Xin Li, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Weipeng Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00110-1
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The hadal zone is the deepest point in the ocean with a depth that exceeds 6000 m. Exploration of the biological communities in hadal zone began in the 1950s (the first wave of hadal exploration) and substantial advances have been made since the turn of the twenty-first century (the second wave of hadal exploration), resulting in a focus on the hadal sphere as a research hotspot because of its unique physical and chemical conditions. A variety of prokaryotes are found in the hadal zone. The mechanisms used by these prokaryotes to manage the high hydrostatic pressures and acquire energy from the environment are of substantial interest. Moreover, the symbioses between microbes and hadal animals have barely been studied. In addition, equipment has been developed that can now mimic hadal environments in the laboratory and allow cultivation of microbes under simulated in situ pressure. This review provides a brief summary of recent progress in the mechanisms by which microbes adapt to high hydrostatic pressures, manage limited energy resources and coexist with animals in the hadal zone, as well as technical developments in the exploration of hadal microbial life.
The intriguing chemistry and biology of sulfur-containing natural products from marine microorganisms (1987–2020)
Yang Hai, Mei-Yan Wei, Chang-Yun Wang, Yu-Cheng Gu, Chang-Lun Shao
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00101-2
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Natural products derived from marine microorganisms have received great attention as a potential resource of new compound entities for drug discovery. The unique marine environment brings us a large group of sulfur-containing natural products with abundant biological functionality including antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. We reviewed all the 484 sulfur-containing natural products (non-sulfated) isolated from marine microorganisms, of which 59.9% are thioethers, 29.8% are thiazole/thiazoline-containing compounds and 10.3% are sulfoxides, sulfones, thioesters and many others. A selection of 133 compounds was further discussed on their structure–activity relationships, mechanisms of action, biosynthesis, and druggability. This is the first systematic review on sulfur-containing natural products from marine microorganisms conducted from January 1987, when the first one was reported, to December 2020.
Shifting chemical defence or novel weapons? A review of defence traits in Agarophyton vermiculophyllum and other invasive seaweeds
Gaoge Wang, Yifei Ren, Shasha Wang, Minglei Hou, Florian Weinberger
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00109-8
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Seaweed bioinvasions increasingly affect coastal environments around the world, which increases the need for predictive models and mitigation strategies. The biotic interactions between seaweed invaders and invaded communities are often considered a key determinant of invasion success and failure and we here revise the current evidence that the capacity of seaweed invaders to deter enemies in newly reached environments correlates with their invasion success. Particularly efficient chemical defences have been described for several of the more problematic seaweed invaders during the last decades. However, confirmed cases in which seaweed invaders confronted un-adapted enemies in newly gained environments with deterrents that were absent from these environments prior to the invasion (so-called "novel weapons") are scarce, although an increasing number of invasive and non-invasive seaweeds are screened for defence compounds. More evidence exists that seaweeds may adapt defence intensities to changing pressure by biological enemies in newly invaded habitats. However, most of this evidence of shifting defence was gathered with only one particular model seaweed, the Asia-endemic red alga Agarophyton vermiculophyllum, which is particularly accessible for direct comparisons of native and non-native populations in common garden experiments. A. vermiculophyllum interacts with consumers, epibionts and bacterial pathogens and in most of these interactions, non-native populations have rather gained than lost defensive capacity relative to native conspecifics. The increases in the few examined cases were due to an increased production of broad-spectrum deterrents and the relative scarcity of specialized deterrents perhaps reflects the circumstance that seaweed consumers and epibionts are overwhelmingly generalists.
Advances on marine-derived natural radioprotection compounds: historic development and future perspective
Reinu E. Abraham, Mousa Alghazwi, Qi Liang, Wei Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00095-x
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Natural extracts and compounds from marine resources have gained intensive scientific and industry attention for radioprotective activities in the past ten years. However, the marine-derived radioprotectants have been studied against UV-rays, gamma (γ)-rays and X-rays for more than 30 years. This review aims to identify key marine-derived extracts/compounds and their modes of action studied for radioprotective activities from 1986 to 2019. A comprehensive survey was conducted to establish the trend in terms of the publications each year and the countries of origin. A total of 40 extracts and 34 natural compounds showing radioprotective activities against UV-rays, gamma (γ)-rays and X-rays were identified from a range of marine plants and animals. These extracts and compounds are broadly categorized into polysaccharides, phlorotannins, carotenoids and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Macroalgae and microalgae were found to be the dominant sources of polysaccharides, phlorotannins and carotenoids. MAAs were mainly identified in algae, sponges, sea cucumber and corals that showed significant UV-absorbing activities. A number of radioprotective mechanisms were shown by these compounds, predominantly free radicals scavenging, inhibition of apoptosis, UV-ray absorption and DNA damage-repair signaling pathways. While these bio-discoveries warrant further investigation and development of radioprotective therapeutics, however, the lack of clinical studies is a major obstacle to be tackled in the future.
Recent progress in the understanding of the gut microbiota of marine fishes
Weihao Ou, Guijuan Yu, Yanjiao Zhang, Kangsen Mai
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00094-y
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As the significance of the gut microbiota has become increasingly realized, a large number of related studies have emerged. With respect to the gut microbial composition of fish, the predominant gut microbes and core gut microbiota have been reported by many researchers. Our understanding of fish gut microbiota, especially its functional roles, has fallen far behind that of terrestrial vertebrates, although previous studies using gnotobiotic zebrafish models have revealed that the gut microbiota performs a significant role in gut development, nutrient metabolism and immune responses. Given that environmental factors of marine habitats are very different from those of freshwater habitats, a distinct difference may exist in the gut microbiota between freshwater and marine fish. Therefore, this review aims to address the advances in marine fish gut microbiota in terms of methodologies, the gut microbial composition, and gnotobiotic models of marine fish, the important factors (host genotype and three environmental factors: temperature, salinity and diet) that drive marine fish gut microbiota, and significant roles of the gut microbiota in marine fish.
Research Paper
Community structure and activity potentials of archaeal communities in hadal sediments of the Mariana and Mussau trenches
Zixuan Wang, Li Wang, Rulong Liu, Zhenzhen Li, JiaXin Wu, Xing Wei, Wenxia Wei, Jiasong Fang, Junwei Cao, Yuli Wei, Zhe Xie
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00105-y
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Hadal trenches are the least explored marine habitat on earth. Archaea has been shown to be the dominant group in trench sediments. However, the activity potentials and detailed diversity of these communities as well as their inter-trench variations are still not known. In this study, we combined datasets from two pairs of primers to investigate at high resolution the structure and activity potentials of the archaeal communities in vertically sectioned sediment cores taken from the deepest points of the Mariana (10, 853 m) and Mussau (7011 m) trenches. The compositions of the potentially active communities revealed, via 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and RNA (rRNA), significant differences between samples. Marine Group I (MGI), with nine identified subgroups, was the most dominant class in the active archaeal communities of the two trenches. Significantly different species composition and vertical variations were observed between the two trenches. Vertical transitions from aerobic MGI α to anaerobic MGI η and υ subgroups were observed in MST but not in MT sediments, which might be related to the faster microbial oxygen consumption in MST. These results provide a better understanding on archaeal activity and diversity in trench sediments.
Optimizing the hybridization chain reaction-fluorescence in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) protocol for detection of microbes in sediments
Zeyu Jia, Yijing Dong, Heng Xu, Fengping Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00098-8
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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a canonical tool commonly used in environmental microbiology research to visualize targeted cells. However, the problems of low signal intensity and false-positive signals impede its widespread application. Alternatively, the signal intensity can be amplified by incorporating Hybridization Chain Reaction (HCR) with FISH, while the specificity can be improved through protocol modification and proper counterstaining. Here we optimized the HCR-FISH protocol for studying microbes in environmental samples, particularly marine sediments. Firstly, five sets of HCR initiator/amplifier pairs were tested on the laboratory-cultured bacterium Escherichia coli and the archaeon Methanococcoides methylutens, and two sets displayed high hybridization efficiency and specificity. Secondly, we tried to find the best combination of sample pretreatment methods and HCR-FISH protocol for environmental sample analysis with the aim of producing less false positive signals. Various detachment methods, extraction methods and formulas of hybridization buffer were tested using sediment samples. Thirdly, an image processing method was developed to enhance the DAPI signal of microbial cells against that of abiotic particles, providing a reliable reference for FISH imaging. In summary, our optimized HCR-FISH protocol showed promise to serve as an addendum to traditional FISH for research on environmental microbes.
Mechanism of interactions between a-conotoxin RegIIA and carbohydrates at the human a3ߴ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Meiling Zheng, Han-Shen Tae, Liang Xue, Tao Jiang, Rilei Yu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00108-9
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Conotoxins are marine peptide toxins from marine cone snails. The a-conotoxin RegIIA can selectively act on human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and is an important lead for drug development. The high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the α3β4 nAChR demonstrates several carbohydrates are located near the orthosteric binding sites, which may affect a-conotoxin binding. Oligosaccharide chains can modify the physical and chemical properties of proteins by changing the conformation, hydrophobicity, quality and size of the protein. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of oligosaccharide chains on the binding modes and activities of RegIIA and its derivatives at hα3β4 nAChRs. Through computational simulations, we designed and synthesized RegIIA mutants at position 14 to explore the importance of residue H14 to the activity of the peptide. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the oligosaccharide chains affect the binding of RegIIA at the hα3β4 nAChR through direct interactions with H14 and by affecting the C-loop conformation of the binding sites. Electrophysiology studies on H14 analogues suggest that in addition to forming direct interactions with the carbohydrates, the residue might play an important role in maintaining the conformation of the peptide. Overall, this study further clarifies the structureסctivity relationship of a-conotoxin RegIIA at the hα3β4 nAChR and, also provides important experimental and theoretical basis for the development of new peptide drugs.
Structure modification, antialgal, antiplasmodial, and toxic evaluations of a series of new marine-derived 14-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives
Wei-Feng Xu, Na-Na Wu, Yan-Wei Wu, Yue-Xuan Qi, Mei-Yan Wei, Laura M. Pineda, Michelle G. Ng, Carmenza Spadafora, Ji-Yong Zheng, Ling Lu, Chang-Yun Wang, Yu-Cheng Gu, Chang-Lun Shao
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00103-0
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Marine natural products play critical roles in the chemical defense of many marine organisms and are essential, reputable sources of successful drug leads. Sixty-seven 14-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives 3-27 and 30-71 of the natural product zeaenol (1) isolated from the marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus were semisynthesized by chlorination, acylation, esterification, and acetalization in one to three steps. The structures of these new derivatives were established by HRESIMS and NMR techniques. All the compounds (1-71) were evaluated for their antialgal and antiplasmodial activities. Among them, 14 compounds displayed antifouling activities against adhesion of the fouling diatoms. In particular, 9 and 34 exhibited strong and selective inhibitory effects against the diatoms Navicula laevissima and Navicula exigua (EC50 = 6.67 and 8.55 μmol/L), respectively, which were similar in efficacy to those of the positive control SeaNine 211 (EC50 = 2.90 and 9.74 μmol/L). More importantly, 38, 39, and 69-71 showed potent antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 3.54 to 9.72 μmol/L. Very interestingly, the five antiplasmodial derivatives displayed non-toxicity in the cytotoxicity assays and the zebrafish embryos model, thus, representing potential promising antiplasmodial drug agents. The preliminary structureסctivity relationships indicated that biphenyl substituent at C-2, acetonide at positions C-5' and C-6', and tri- or tetra-substituted of acyl groups increased the antiplasmodial activity. Therefore, combining evaluation of chemical ecology with pharmacological models will be implemented as a systematic strategy, not only for environmentally friendly antifoulants but also for structurally novel drugs.
A Rhizobium bacterium and its population dynamics under different culture conditions of its associated toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus balechii
Zhen Wu, Xiaohong Yang, Senjie Lin, Wai Hin Lee, Paul K. S. Lam
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00102-1
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Rhizobium bacteria are known as symbionts of legumes for developing nodules on plant roots and fixing N2 for the host plants but unknown for associations with dinoflagellates. Here, we detected, isolated, and characterized a Rhizobium species from the marine toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus culture. Its 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) is 99% identical to that of Rhizobium rosettiformans, and the affiliation is supported by the phylogenetic placement of its cell wall hydrolase -encoding gene (cwh). Using quantitative PCR of 16S rDNA and cwh, we found that the abundance of this bacterium increased during the late exponential growth phase of Gambierdiscus and under nitrogen limitation, suggesting potential physiological interactions between the dinoflagellate and the bacterium. This is the first report of dinoflagellate-associated Rhizobium bacterium, and its prevalence and ecological roles in dinoflagellate-Rhizobium relationships remain to be investigated in the future.
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching: analyses of cyanobacterial phycobilisomes reveal intrinsic fluorescence recovery
Nan Zhang, Kang Li, Bin-Bin Xie, Xiu-Lan Chen, Bai-Cheng Zhou, Hai-Nan Su, Yu-Zhong Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00104-z
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Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has been used to study the dynamics of the cyanobacterial photosynthesis apparatus since 1997. Fluorescence recovery of cyanobacteria during FRAP was conventionally interpreted as a result of phycobilisome (PBS) diffusion on the surface of the thylakoid membrane. The mechanism of state transition in cyanobacteria has been widely attributed to PBS diffusion. However, in red algae, another PBS-containing group, the intrinsic photoprocess was found to contribute greatly to the fluorescence recovery of PBS, which raises questions concerning the role of FRAP in red algal PBS. Therefore, it is important to re-evaluate the nature of PBS fluorescence recovery in cyanobacteria. In the present study, four cyanobacterial strains with different phenotypes and PBS compositions were used to investigate their FRAP characteristics. Fluorescence recovery of PBS was observed in wholly photobleached cells in all four cyanobacterial strains, in which the contribution of PBS diffusion to the fluorescence recovery was not possible. Moreover, the fluorescence recovered in isolated PBSs and PBS-thylakoid membranes after photobleaching further demonstrated the intrinsic photoprocess nature of fluorescence recovery. These findings suggest that the intrinsic photoprocess contributed to the fluorescence recovery following photobleaching when measured by the FRAP method.
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor D from kuruma shrimp exhibits antiviral activity
Hai-Shan Jiang, Li-Xia Lv, Jin-Xing Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00113-y
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Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) exhibit a potent antimicrobial activity against a broad range of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and viruses. In previous reports, seven groups of ALFs (groups A–G) were identified in penaeid shrimp. Among them, group D showed negative net charges and weak antimicrobial activity. Whether this group has antiviral function is not clear. In this study, the ALF sequences of penaeid shrimp were analyzed, and eight groups of ALF family (groups A–H) were identified. The four ALFs including MjALF-C2, MjALF-D1, MjALF-D2, and MjALF-E2 from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus were expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli, and the antiviral activity was screened via injection of purified recombinant ALFs into shrimp following white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Results showed that the expression of Vp28 (WSSV envelope protein) decreased significantly in the MjALF-D2-injected shrimp only. Therefore, MjALF-D2 was chosen for further study. Expression pattern analysis showed that MjAlf-D2 was upregulated in shrimp challenged by WSSV. The WSSV replication was detected in RNA, genomic DNA, and protein levels using VP28 and Ie1 (immediate-early gene of WSSV) as indicators in MjALF-D2-injected shrimp following WSSV infection. Results showed that WSSV replication was significantly inhibited compared with that in the rTRX- or PBS-injected control groups. After knockdown of MjAlf-D2 in shrimp by RNA interference, the WSSV replication increased significantly in the shrimp. All these results suggested that MjALF-D2 has an antiviral function in shrimp immunity, and the recombinant ALF-D2 has a potential application for viral disease control in shrimp aquaculture.
Study on the effects of the different polar group of EPA-enriched phospholipids on the proliferation and apoptosis in 95D cells
Yao Guo, Qin Zhao, Yingying Tian, Yuanyuan Liu, Ziyi Yan, Changhu Xue, Jingfeng Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00097-9
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EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylethanolamine (EPA-PE) are newly identified marine phospholipids. The polar group of phospholipids is known to influence EPA-phospholipid activity. However, the differences in anti-tumor effects between EPA-PC and EPA-PE have not been reported. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two forms of EPA on the proliferation and apoptosis in the lung-cancer cell line 95D as well as possible molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that EPA-PC effectively inhibited proliferative activity and promoted apoptosis of 95D cells in a dose-dependent manner, while EPA-PE had no effect on cell proliferation, although it slightly promoted apoptosis. Western blot results showed that EPA-PC and EPA-PE upregulated the expression of PPARγ, RXRα, and PTEN, and downregulated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, EPA-PC and EPA-PE induced the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene, Bax, and reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-xl. Additionally, EPA-PC and EPA-PE promoted the release of cytochrome c and activated the apoptotic enzyme-cleaved caspase-3. These data suggest that the anti-tumor effect of EPAphospholipids may be exerted via a PPARγ-related mechanism. EPA-PC was more efficacious as compared to EPA-PE, which might be due to the different polar groups of phospholipids.
Wnt8a is one of the candidate genes that play essential roles in the elongation of the seahorse prehensile tail
Bo Zhang, Geng Qin, Lili Qu, Yanhong Zhang, Chunyan Li, Chunlei Cang, Qiang Lin
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00099-7
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Seahorses are a hallmark of specialized morphological features due to their elongated prehensile tail. However, the underlying genomic grounds of seahorse tail development remain elusive. Herein, we evaluated the roles of essential genes from the Wnt gene family for the tail developmental process in the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the Wnt gene family is conserved in seahorses. The expression profiles and in situ hybridization suggested that Wnt5a, Wnt8a, and Wnt11 may participate in seahorse tail development. Like in other teleosts, Wnt5a and Wnt11 were found to regulate the development of the tail axial mesoderm and tail somitic mesoderm, respectively. However, a significantly extended expression period of Wnt8a during seahorse tail development was observed. Signaling pathway analysis further showed that Wnt8a up-regulated the expression of the tail axial mesoderm gene (Shh), while interaction analysis indicated that Wnt8a could promote the expression of Wnt11. In summary, our results indicate that the special extended expression period of Wnt8a might promote caudal tail axis formation, which contributes to the formation of the elongated tail of the seahorse.
Metagenomes of polyamine-transforming bacterioplankton along a nearshore–open ocean transect
Xinxin Lu, Kai Wang, Xiaozhen Mou
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00114-x
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Short-chained aliphatic polyamines (PAs) have recently been recognized as an important carbon, nitrogen, and/or energy source for marine bacterioplankton. To study the genes and taxa involved in the transformations of different PA compounds and their potential variations among marine systems, we collected surface bacterioplankton from nearshore, offshore, and open ocean stations in the Gulf of Mexico and examined their metagenomic responses to additions of single PA model compounds (putrescine, spermidine, or spermine). Genes affiliated with PA uptake and all three known PA degradation pathways, i.e., transamination, γ-glutamylation, and spermidine cleavage, were significantly enriched in most PA-treated metagenomes. In addition, identified PA-transforming taxa were mostly the alpha and gamma classes of Proteobacteria, with less important contributions from members of Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. These findings suggest that PA transformations are ubiquitous, have diverse pathways, and are carried out by a broad range of the bacterioplankton taxa in the Gulf of Mexico. Identified PA-transforming bacterial genes and taxa were different among nearshore, offshore, and open ocean sites, but were little different among individual compound-amended metagenomes at any specific site. These observations further indicate that PA-transforming taxa and genes are site-specific and with high similarities among PA compounds.
Tetraploid induction of Crassostrea hongkongensis and C. sikamea by inhibiting the polar body 1 release in diploid fertilized eggs
Yanping Qin, Zohaib Noor, Xingyou Li, Haitao Ma, Jun Li, Yinyin Zhou, Riguan Mo, Yuehuan Zhang, Ziniu Yu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-021-00107-w
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The production of an all-triploid population by mating tetraploid males with diploid females is the best and most fundamental method for the large-scale production of triploid oysters. Obtaining a stable tetraploid population is essential for guaranteed production in industrialized triploid cultivation. C. hongkongensis and C. sikamea are important oyster breeding species in southern China, and have great economic value. However, there are not any published data on inducing tetraploid C. hongkongensis or C. sikamea. Therefore, we investigated tetraploid induction in these two oyster species by inhibiting the PB1 release in diploid fertilized eggs using Cytochalasin B (CB) under 31 ℃, 15 ‰ salinity. The results confirmed that the optimal tetraploid induction conditions for C. hongkongensis were a CB concentration of 0.50 mg/L with induction starting at 9.0 min after fertilization, and stopping at 21.0 min after fertilization; the induction efficiency index reached 0.123 under these conditions. The optimal tetraploid induction conditions for C. sikamea were a CB concentration of 0.50 mg/L, with induction starting at 7.5 min after fertilization and stopping at 18 min after fertilization; the induction efficiency index could be as high as 0.281 under these conditions. However, we confirmed that the tetraploid rate decreased with larval growth, and no tetraploids were detected in the juvenile period of either C. hongkongensis or C. sikamea. This may be attributed to the very low survival of the tetraploid larvae induced by this method, especially as most tetraploid larvae died during the first three days. In summary, it is simple to directly induce tetraploid C. hongkongensis and C. sikamea larvae by inhibiting the PB1 release of diploid zygotes, but the low survival rate makes it challenging to obtain viable juvenile tetraploids.
Growth, serum biochemical parameters, salinity tolerance and antioxidant enzyme activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to dietary taurine levels
Ming Huang, Xiaogang Yang, Yangen Zhou, Jian Ge, D. Allen Davis, Yunwei Dong, Qinfeng Gao, Shuanglin Dong
, Available online  , doi: 10.1007/s42995-020-00088-2
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This study evaluated the effect of dietary taurine levels on growth, serum biochemical parameters, salinity adaptability, and antioxidant activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Four diets were formulated with taurine supplements at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2% w/v (abbreviated as T0, T0.5, T1, and T2, respectively). Rainbow trouts (initial weight of 80.09 ± 4.72 g) were stocked in tanks (180 L capacity), and were fed these diets for six weeks and subsequently underwent salinity acclimation. Physiological indicators were determined before salinity acclimation at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days afterwards. Results showed that there were no significant differences in growth performance (final mean weight ranged from 182.35 g to 198.48 g; percent weight gain was between 127.68% and 147.92%) of rainbow trout in freshwater stage, but dietary taurine supplement significantly increased serum-free taurine content. After entering seawater, the Na+-K+-ATPase activity of T2 group returned to its freshwater levels, and the serum cortisol content was significantly higher than T0 and T0.5 groups. At the end of this experiment, the liver superoxide dismutase activity in the T0 and T0.5 groups was significantly lower than in the T1 and T2 groups, and the liver catalase in the T0 group was the lowest whereas that in the T2 group was the highest. Muscle malondialdehyde content was the highest in the T0 group, and the lowest in the T2 group. Based on the results of this study, supplement of dietary taurine (0.5-2%) enhanced the salinity tolerance in rainbow trout, which increased with the higher taurine concentration.